Glossary

Bittersweet Chocolate
Contains at least 35% chocolate liquor for bittersweet. Other ingredients include extra cocoa butter (in some cases), sugar, lecithin and spices.

Bonbon, Confection or Chocolate
An individual confectionery center that is either enrobed with chocolate to cover or encased in a molded chocolate shell I try to reserve the term “chocolate” for solid or hollow chocolate items such as chocolate bars or seasonal shapes.

Cabosse
The French term used throughout the industry for fruit of the cacao tree.

Cacao Bean
The seeds of the fruit, called a pod or cabosse, produced by the Theobroma cacao tree and pronounced kah KOW.

Chocolate
Chocolate liquor to which different percentages of cocoa butter are removed or added and some or all of the following ingredients are added: sugar, lecithin, milk or cream powder (to produce milk chocolate), and spices such as vanilla.

Chocolate Bloom
Also called fat bloom – is a thin whitish, beige or gray film (can be streaks or spots as well) that forms on the surface of chocolate as a result of many factors such as: incomplete tempering (using too cool temperatures for melting and tempering), incorrect cooling, enrobing or molding cold centers, presence of other fats in the centers or chocolate, and storing the chocolate in too warm conditions. Does not effect the taste or condition of the chocolate but does mar the appearance. Preventing bloom requires the correct tempering where the stable crystalline forms of chocolate are dispersed throughout the liquid chocolate, continuous agitation of the tempered chocolate as it is being used and moderate cooling.

Chocolate Liquor
The ground cocoa nibs which contain their inherent cocoa solids and cocoa butter (approximately 50%). The industry
term “liquor” comes from the latin word liquor meaning “a liquid” which is what happens to roasted cocoa beans when they are ground into a paste – correctly pronounced as “licker”.

Cocoa Bean
In the industry, once “cacao” beans (or seeds) have gone through the fermentation process they are then called
“cocoa” beans.

Cocoa Butter
The pale yellow vegetable fat in the cocoa bean with a melting point of 89° F (32° C) – 95° F (35° C). It’s crystallization properties demand that chocolate containing cocoa butter be tempered in the final process before cooling.

Cocoa Cake
Also called Presscake – chocolate liquor in which most of the cocoa butter has been removed. The percentage of cocoa butter in the cocoa cake varies depending on its later use. “Kibbled” presscake refers to the breaking up of the cake in order to add a specific amount of cocoa butter
or hydrogenated vegetable oil in the making of chocolate products.

Cocoa Nib
Cocoa beans break into smaller particles/sections after they are dried and roasted. Also called grué.

Cocoa Powder
Ground cocoa cake. Cocoa powders can have different percentages of cocoa butter.

Compound Chocolate
Also called Compound Coating, Decorator’s Chocolate, Confectioner’s Coating, Paté Glacée – all the cocoa butter is removed from the chocolate liquor and replaced with another hydrogenated vegetable oil such as coconut or palm kernel oil. This greatly reduces the cost and processing (doesn’t have to be tempered) of the finished product. As with real chocolate, coatings also have some or all of the following ingredients added: sugar, lecithin, milk or cream powder (to produce milk confectioner’s coating), and spices such as vanilla.

Couverture
Chocolate containing at least 32% cocoa butter. The high
cocoa butter content can make the chocolate taste better in your mouth (more about that later) and produce a more satiny finish for a beautiful chocolate. Couverture comes from the French word couvrir – to coat or cover and is pronounced koo-vehr-TYOOR. Sometimes referred to as fondant chocolate.

Dutch Process
The cocoa cakes, powder or nibs are treated with an alkali salt to increase pH value and neutralize the acidity. While this process doesn’t change the flavor of the chocolate except for the acidity, it does deepen the cocoa powder’s color making it appear richer and improves its suspension in liquids.

Enrobage
The thin, hard covering of an enrobed bonbon.

Fine Flavor Cocoa Bean
Cocoa beans that are considered high in quality and flavor – about 5% of the total cocoa bean market.

Fondeurs
Chocolatiers are called Fondeurs or “melters” in France as they melt large blocks of bulk chocolate and temper it to cover bonbons and mold into filled or solid shapes.

Ganache
Ganache is a French term referring to a smooth mixture of chopped chocolate and heavy cream.

Gianduja
A blend of roasted hazelnuts (or almonds) with milk chocolate that is produced commercially and used for chocolate and dessert fillings. It is the luxury version of commercial chocolate spread Nutella which was created in the same region.

Marzipan
Marzipan is an almond and sugar paste that is used to ice cakes and other pastries or sculpted into a variety of shapes to be eaten as candy or used as cake decorations. It is simply a mixture of almond paste, powdered sugar, and a moistening agent such as water, corn syrup, glucose,fondant, or egg whites.

Milk Chocolate
Contains at least 10% chocolate liquor. Other ingredients include sugar, lecithin, milk or cream powder, and spices such as vanilla.

Pistoles
Pronounced \pis-‘tol\ (also called: Pastilles \pas-‘tel\ , Feves, Calets, Discs) – chocolate or coatings that are formed into small discs or wafers instead of bars for distribution. This in response to demand from chocolatiers and pastry chef’s for a more convenient form of couverture.

Powdered Chocolate
Produced by Cacao Noel and called ‘Couverture Atomize’. It is made from fully conched chocolate couverture.

Praline
Can be many things: a bonbon of filled chocolate (Belgium, Germany and Switzerland), a New Orleans pecan sugar candy (US), and a blend of chocolate with nuts – usually almonds (France)

Semisweet Chocolate
Contains at least 15% chocolate liquor. Other ingredients include extra cocoa butter (in some cases), sugar, lecithin and spices.

Sugar Bloom
Produces white dots or tackiness on the surface of the chocolate. This is the sugar rising to the surface when chocolate is exposed to refrigerated conditions. More than a 13°F (7°C) degree difference between temperatures in storage will cause condensation which precipitates sugar bloom.

Tempering
The heating Рcooling Рheating of the chocolate in order to stabilize the cocoa butter fatty acids. Referred to as temp̩rage in France.

Theobroma Cacao
The tree that produces the cacao pod (cabosse) with its cocoa beans (seeds) inside.

White Chocolate
Contains at least 20% cocoa butter. Other ingredients include sugar, milk and vanilla. Since it does not contain any chocolate paste, white chocolate isn’t considered to be a chocolate product.

The cacao tree
Cacao trees grow best within the tropical belt between 15 degrees north and 15 degrees south of the equator. The trees require
optimal vegetative conditions, including rich soil, in order to grow. A consistent climate with temperatures averaging 25° C and high rainfall areas with high humidity are also necessary. Ideal regions for the cultivation of cacao trees can be found near mountains, coasts and on islands. Despite their preference for warmth, cacao trees shun direct sunlight and have evolved to be an understory rainforest tree requiring a canopy. They are often cultivated under such trees as the plantain, banana, rubber and mango.

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